Psychology

Publication Title: 
Oncogene

Replicative senescence is thought to be a significant barrier to human tumorigenesis, which in human fibroblasts, and many other cell types, can be overcome experimentally by combined loss of function of p53 and Rb 'pathways'. To avoid the confounding pleiotropic effects of HPVE7 frequently used in such studies, here we have employed retroviral vectors over-expressing CDK4 or CDK6 as a more representative model of naturally-occurring mutations targeting the Rb pathway.

Author(s): 
Morris, Mark
Hepburn, Peter
Wynford-Thomas, David
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility, toxicity, cosmetic outcome, and local control of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone without whole breast external beam irradiation for early-stage breast carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 32 women diagnosed with a total of 33 AJCC Stage I/II breast carcinomas underwent surgical breast excision and postoperative irradiation using HDR brachytherapy interstitial implantation as part of a multi-institutional clinical Phase I/II protocol.

Author(s): 
Wazer, David E.
Berle, Lisa
Graham, Roger
Chung, Maureen
Rothschild, Janice
Graves, Theresa
Cady, Blake
Ulin, Kenneth
Ruthazer, Robin
DiPetrillo, Thomas A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners

PURPOSE: To describe herpes zoster ophthalmicus in relation to the anatomy, pathophysiology, course, diagnostic considerations, and management for the primary care provider. DATA SOURCES: Actual case study supplemented with an extensive review of current scientific and psychosocial literature. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is an extension of a herpes zoster (HZ) infection involving the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve, which results from the reactivation of a latent varicella virus among individuals who had contracted a varicella infection sometime within their lifespan.

Author(s): 
Temple, Jeffery J.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that arise from mammary epithelial cells (MECs). One of the key early events in tumorigenic transformation is the ability of cells to overcome replicative senescence. However, the precise genetic changes that are responsible for this event in MECs is largely unknown. Here, we report that Bmi-1, originally identified as a c-Myc cooperating oncoprotein, can bypass senescence, extend the replicative life span, and immortalize MECs. Furthermore, Bmi-1 was overexpressed in immortal MECs and several breast cancer cell lines.

Author(s): 
Dimri, Goberdhan P.
Martinez, Jose-Luis
Jacobs, Jacqueline J. L.
Keblusek, Petra
Itahana, Koji
Van Lohuizen, Maarten
Campisi, Judith
Wazer, David E.
Band, Vimla
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Normal human cells have a finite proliferative potential in vitro. However, some DNA viral proteins, such as SV40 Tg, can alter this and extend the lifespan after which the cells enter crisis, a period when massive cell death occurs. Based on these observations, a two-stage model for cellular senescence has been proposed with a distinct function for each stage.

Author(s): 
Rubelj, Ivica
Huzak, Miljenko
Brdar, Branko
Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

Aging is characterized by a progressive decline of cellular functions. The aging liver appears to preserve its function relatively well. Aging is associated in human liver with morphological changes such as decrease in size attributable to decreased hepatic blood flow. Ultrastructural analysis of the human liver has revealed that the integrity of mitochondria and enzymatic activity remain mostly unchanged with aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aging process and result mainly from nonenzymatic processes in the liver.

Author(s): 
Anantharaju, Abhinandana
Feller, Axel
Chedid, Antonio
Publication Title: 
Nature

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model for studying the genetics of ageing, with over 50 life-extension mutations known so far. However, little is known about the pathobiology of ageing in this species, limiting attempts to connect genotype with senescent phenotype. Using ultrastructural analysis and visualization of specific cell types with green fluorescent protein, we examined cell integrity in different tissues as the animal ages.

Author(s): 
Herndon, Laura A.
Schmeissner, Peter J.
Dudaronek, Justyna M.
Brown, Paula A.
Listner, Kristin M.
Sakano, Yuko
Paupard, Marie C.
Hall, David H.
Driscoll, Monica
Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

Caloric restriction (CR) may retard aging processes and extend lifespan in organisms by altering energy-metabolic pathways. In CR rodents, glucose influx into tissues is not reduced, as compared with control animals fed ad libitum (AL), although plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin are lower. Gene expression profiles in rodents have suggested that CR promotes gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. In the liver, CR promotes gluconeogenesis but decreases fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis.

Author(s): 
Yamaza, Haruyoshi
Chiba, Takuya
Higami, Yoshikazu
Shimokawa, Isao
Publication Title: 
Microscopy Research and Technique

For nearly 70 years it has been recognized that reduction in caloric intake by 30-40% from ad libitum levels leads to a significant extension of mean and maximal lifespan in a variety of short-lived species. This effect of caloric restriction (CR) on lifespan has been reported in nearly all species tested and has been reproduced hundreds of times under a variety of different laboratory conditions. In addition to prolonging lifespan, CR also prevents or delays the onset of age-related disease and maintains many physiological functions at more youthful levels.

Author(s): 
Lane, Mark A.
Mattison, Julie
Ingram, Donald K.
Roth, George S.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Biology & Therapy

Studies were conducted to directly test whether the introduction of telomerase protects cancer-prone human mammary epithelial cells from chromosomal instability and spontaneous immortalization. Using a model for Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), infection of human telomerase resulted in maintenance of telomere lengths, extension of in vitro lifespan, and prevention of spontaneous immortalization.

Author(s): 
Elmore, Lynne W.
Turner, Kristi C.
Gollahon, Lauren S.
Landon, Melissa R.
Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.
Holt, Shawn E.

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