Journal of Adolescent Health Care: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Vomiting is often a major source of distress for adolescent oncology patients. This study evaluates the effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing the vomiting associated with chemotherapy and disease in 12 adolescents with cancer. Eight patients receiving chemotherapy demonstrated significant reductions in the frequency (p less than 0.01) and intensity (p less than 0.05) of emesis. Six of the eight patients also demonstrated a shortened duration of emesis.
Hypnosis, as a relaxation technique to reduce anxiety and drug-related nausea and vomiting in children with cancer, is an effective treatment modality. Its benefit as a self-relaxation technique is now being realized.
The use of hypnosis was demonstrated on a psychiatric consultation-liaison service (CLS) in a broad spectrum of medically hospitalized patients. Hypnosis was employed as an adjuvant measure to traditional medical and psychologic treatment modalities. Tapes for autohypnosis were used for reinforcement. Twenty-nine women and eight men from 24 to 75 years of age were hypnotized for relief of depression, pain, anxiety, or side-effects from chemotherapy.
Few controlled clinical trials have tested the efficacy of psychological techniques for reducing cancer pain or post-chemotherapy nausea and emesis. In this study, 67 bone marrow transplant patients with hematological malignancies were randomly assigned to one of four groups prior to beginning transplantation conditioning: (1) hypnosis training (HYP); (2) cognitive behavioral coping skills training (CB); (3) therapist contact control (TC); or (4) treatment as usual (TAU; no treatment control).
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP
To study the effectiveness of hypnosis for decreasing antiemetic medication usage and treatment of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in children with cancer, we conducted a prospective, randomized, and controlled single-blind trial in 20 patients receiving chemotherapy for treatment of cancer. Patients were randomized to either hypnosis or standard treatment. The hypnosis group used hypnosis as primary treatment for nausea and vomiting, using antiemetic medication on a supplemental (p.r.n.) basis only, whereas the control group received a standardized antiemetic medication regimen.
Behavioral interventions used to reduce distress and increase cooperation in children undergoing cancer treatment incorporate: contingency management, cognitive/attentional distraction, hypnosis, systematic desensitization, modeling and behavioral rehearsal. In most cases clinical interventions integrate these procedures into a multimodal intervention package. Although in most behavioral interventions the 'therapist' is a nurse, social worker or child psychologist; parents often take an active role in behavioral intervention.
The current standard of care with respect to preventing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children includes the administration of a 5-HT(3) antagonist with or without a corticosteroid, depending on the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy to be given. Problems in assessing the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens and nausea severity in children may influence the degree of success of CINV prophylaxis. Nevertheless, the majority of children who receive chemotherapy today experience moderate to complete control of acute CINV when given appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis.
To systematically review the research evidence on the effectiveness of hypnosis for cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A comprehensive search of major biomedical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClNAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Specialist complementary and alternative medicine databases were searched and efforts were made to identify unpublished and ongoing research. Citations were included from the databases' inception to March 2005. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were appraised and meta-analysis undertaken.