The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice
BACKGROUND: Sexual problems are common but infrequently diagnosed. They are classified into four major categories: (1) sexual desire disorders, (2) sexual arousal disorders, (3) orgasmic disorders, and (4) sexual pain disorders. METHODS: MEDLINE files from 1966 to the present were searched using the specific sexual dysfunctions as key words along with the general key word "sexual dysfunction" to review the published literature. Additional articles came from the reference lists of dysfunction-specific reviews.
This paper describes four specific clinical applications of hypnosis that can make psychotherapy for pain management briefer, more goal-oriented, and more efficient: (1) the assessment of hypnotizability; (2) the induction of hypnotic analgesia and development of individualized pain coping strategies; (3) direct suggestion, cognitive reframing, hypnotic metaphors, and pain relief imagery; and (4) brief psychodynamic reprocessing during the trance state of emotional factors in the patient's experience of chronic pain.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), a chronic childhood onset posttraumatic stress disorder, is currently recognized as a treatable condition. It is considered the paradigmatic dissociative condition and carries with it extreme posttraumatic symptomatology. Therapists skilled in the treatment of DID are typically fluent in the uses of hypnosis for stabilization, affect management, building a safe place and grounding to name of few. EMDR, which has come to the forefront of clinical awareness in the last ten years, seems aptly suited for the treatment of trauma, but can be destabilizing.
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury resulting in increased intracranial pressure refractory to first-tier interventions challenge the critical care team. After exhausting these initial interventions, critical care practitioners may utilize barbiturate-induced coma in an attempt to reduce the intracranial pressure. Titrating appropriate levels of barbiturate is imperative. Underdosing the drug may fail to control the intracranial pressure, whereas overdosing may lead to untoward effects such as hypotension and cardiac compromise.
BACKGROUND: Hot flashes are a highly prevalent problem associated with menopause and breast cancer treatments. The recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative have important implications for the significance of a non-hormonal, mind-body intervention for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Women who take hormone therapy long-term may have a 1.2 to 2.0 fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. In addition, it is now known that hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.
BACKGROUND: A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation.
Adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a greater risk of anxiety and depression and impaired quality of life (QoL) compared with healthy controls and other chronic physical illness groups. Consequently, the development and evaluation of well-defined and theoretically robust psychotherapeutic interventions for adults with IBD are desirable. To date, interventions have, for the most part, used multiple cross-theoretical approaches. Published reviews are heterogeneous in terms both of categorization of psychotherapeutic approaches and also of conclusions relating to efficacy.
BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved targeting of antimalarial treatment if artemisinin combination therapy is to be successfully introduced in Africa. This study aimed to explore why malaria slides are requested and how their results guide treatment decisions in an area of low transmission of P. falciparum. METHODS: Outpatients attending a district hospital in a highland area of Tanzania were studied over a 3-week period. Clinical and social data were collected from patients who had been prescribed an antimalarial or sent for a malaria slide.
Chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum contributes to increasing malaria-attributable morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a change in drug policy, continued prescription of CQ did not abate. Therefore the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients was assessed in a standard 28-day protocol in 116 children aged between six and 120 months in Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria. Parasitological and clinical assessments of response to treatment showed that 72 (62.1%) of the patients were cured and 44 (37.9%) failed the CQ treatment.