Genotype

Publication Title: 
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

OBJECTIVE: Eric Strˆmgren was one of the pioneers of psychiatric genetics and family studies. There has now been an explosion of interest in this field and research progress, including linkage and association studies, whole genome genotyping, copy number variants and epigenetics is reviewed here. METHOD: An overview of this area of psychiatric research is presented and discussed based on the relevant literature aiming at giving a recent status of the progress.

Author(s): 
Cohen-Woods, S.
Schosser, A.
McGuffin, P.
Publication Title: 
The Psychiatric Clinics of North America

Research into the genetic basis of bipolar disorder (BD) has reached a turning point. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), encompassing several thousand samples, have produced replicated evidence for some novel susceptibility genes; however, the genetic variants implicated so far account for only a fraction of disease liability, a phenomenon not limited to psychiatric phenotypes but characteristic of all complex genetic traits studied to date. It appears that pure genomic approaches, such as GWAS alone, will not suffice to unravel the genetic basis of a complex illness like BD.

Author(s): 
Schulze, Thomas G.
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

Epigenetic mechanisms may moderate genetic and environmental risk (GxE) for mood disorders. We used an experimental rhesus macaque model of early life stress to test whether epigenetic regulation of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may contribute to GxE interactions that influence behavior and emotion.

Author(s): 
Kinnally, E. L.
Capitanio, J. P.
Leibel, R.
Deng, L.
LeDuc, C.
Haghighi, F.
Mann, J. J.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatry Research

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are pivotal enzymes in the epigenetic modification or regulatory mechanisms of gene transcription. Based on previous assertions that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is associated with epigenetics, we hypothesized that polymorphisms of HDAC genes might be related to schizophrenia. We recruited 278 patients with schizophrenia and 234 normal controls from a Korean population.

Author(s): 
Kim, Tae
Park, Jin Kyung
Kim, Hak-Jae
Chung, Joo-Ho
Kim, Jong Woo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in turn sets the stage for a child's psychological and emotional development. This review provides a concise synopsis of those studies investigating the neurobiological and genetic factors associated with childhood maltreatment and adversity.

Author(s): 
McCrory, Eamon
De Brito, Stephane A.
Viding, Essi
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

The completion of Human Genome Project and the "HapMap" project was followed by translational activities from companies within the private sector. This led to the introduction of genome-wide scans based on hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphysms (SNP). These scans were based on common genetic variants in human populations. This new and powerful technology was then applied to the existing DNA-based datasets with information on psychiatric disorders.

Author(s): 
Rudan, Igor
Publication Title: 
BMC medical genetics

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is considered a language related human specific disease. Previous studies have reported evidence of positive selection for schizophrenia-associated genes specific to the human lineage. FOXP2 shows two important features as a convincing candidate gene for schizophrenia vulnerability: FOXP2 is the first gene related to a language disorder, and it has been subject to positive selection in the human lineage. METHODS: Twenty-seven SNPs of FOXP2 were genotyped in a cohort of 293 patients with schizophrenia and 340 controls.

Author(s): 
Tolosa, Amparo
Sanju·n, Julio
Dagnall, Adam M.
MoltÛ, MarÌa D.
Herrero, Neus
de Frutos, Rosa
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

The search for the causes of schizophrenia has predominantly originated from 2 research paradigms; genetics and epidemiology. While each approach has made important contributions to etiological understanding, neither has fully resolved the exact milieu of risk factors for schizophrenia, and there is growing recognition that several pathways to the onset of such disorders may exist.

Author(s): 
Kirkbride, James B.
Jones, Peter B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

Biological development is driven by a complex dance between nurture and nature, determined not only by the specific features of the interacting genetic and environmental influences but also by the timing of their rendezvous. The initiation of large-scale longitudinal studies, ever-expanding knowledge of genetics, and increasing availability of neuroimaging data to provide endophenotypic bridges between molecules and behavior are beginning to provide some insight into interactions of developmental stage, genes, and the environment, although daunting challenges remain.

Author(s): 
Lenroot, Rhoshel K.
Giedd, Jay N.
Publication Title: 
Neuropharmacology

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severely debilitating psychiatric condition. Although a lifetime trauma incidence of 40-90% has been reported in the general population, the overall lifetime prevalence for PTSD ranges between 7-12%, suggesting individual-specific differences towards the susceptibility to PTSD. While studies investigating main genetic effects associated with PTSD have yielded inconsistent findings, there is growing evidence supporting the role of gene-environment (G ◊ E) interactions in PTSD.

Author(s): 
Mehta, Divya
Binder, Elisabeth B.

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