Functional Neuroimaging

Publication Title: 
Consciousness and Cognition

The continual background awareness of duration is an essential structure of consciousness, conferring temporal extension to the many objects of awareness within the evanescent sensory present. Seeking the possible neural correlates of ubiquitous temporal awareness, this article reexamines fMRI data from off-task "default mode" (DM) periods in 25 healthy subjects studied by Grady et al. ("Age-related Changes in Brain Activity across the Adult Lifespan,"Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(2), 2005).

Lloyd, Dan
Publication Title: 
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

This article provides a selective review of the neuroscience and child-psychoanalytic literature, focusing on areas of significant overlap and emphasizing comprehensive theories in developmental neuroscience and child psychoanalysis with testable mechanisms of action.

Protopopescu, Xenia
Gerber, Andrew J.
Publication Title: 

This paper is written from a psychodynamic clinician's perspective, juxtaposing a psychoanalytic-attachment model of depression with recent developments in neuroscience. Three main components of the attachment approach are described: the role of loss, of childhood trauma predisposing to depression in later life, and failure of co-regulation of role of primitive emotions, such as fear, despair, and helplessness. Blatt's distinction between anaclitic and introjective depression is delineated and related to hyper- and de-activation of the attachment dynamic.

Holmes, Jeremy
Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The present study investigates cortical structures associated with personality dimension of positivity (POS) by using a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides EEG localization measures that are independent of the recording reference. Resting EEG and self-report measures of positivity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism were collected from 51 female undergraduates. EEG was recorded across 29 scalp sites. Anterior and posterior source alpha asymmetries of cortical activation were obtained by using sLORETA.

Alessandri, Guido
Caprara, Gian Vittorio
De Pascalis, Vilfredo
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

Despite cultural and individual variation, humans are a judgmental bunch. There is accumulating evidence for early social and moral evaluation as shown by research with infants and children documenting the notion that some behaviors are perceived as right and others are perceived as wrong. Moreover, social interactions are governed by a concern for fairness and others' well-being. However, although generosity increases between infancy and late childhood, it is less clear what mechanisms guide this change.

Cowell, Jason M.
Decety, Jean
Publication Title: 
Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

Alexithymia, a sub-clinical personality construct associated with disturbances in affect regulation and social functioning, is known to be comorbid with a number of psychiatric conditions. We combined a distressing real-time altruism task with functional magnetic resonance imagining to explore the brain behaviour relationship between alexithymia and prosocial action. Here we show that individuals high on the alexithymia spectrum report less distress at seeing others in pain and behave less altruistically.

FeldmanHall, Oriel
Dalgleish, Tim
Mobbs, Dean
Publication Title: 
Psychological Science

Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context.

Weng, Helen Y.
Fox, Andrew S.
Shackman, Alexander J.
Stodola, Diane E.
Caldwell, Jessica Z. K.
Olson, Matthew C.
Rogers, Gregory M.
Davidson, Richard J.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition.

Watanabe, Takamitsu
Takezawa, Masanori
Nakawake, Yo
Kunimatsu, Akira
Yamasue, Hidenori
Nakamura, Mitsuhiro
Miyashita, Yasushi
Masuda, Naoki
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions.

Cardeña, Etzel
Lehmann, Dietrich
Faber, Pascal L.
Jönsson, Peter
Milz, Patricia
Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.
Kochi, Kieko
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Debate regarding the neural basis of the hypnotic state continues, but a recent hypothesis suggests that it may produce alterations in the default mode network (DMN). DMN describes a network of brain regions more active during low-demand compared to high-demand task conditions and has been linked to processes such as task-independent thinking, episodic memory, semantic processing, and self-awareness. However, the experiential and cognitive correlates of DMN remain difficult to investigate directly.

Deeley, Quinton
Oakley, David A.
Toone, Brian
Giampietro, Vincent
Brammer, Michael J.
Williams, Steven C. R.
Halligan, Peter W.


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