Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Adhatoda vasica Nees, Acanthaceae, is well known plant in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. The purpose of this study was to characterize the most bioactive phytochemicals viz., vasicine, vasicinone, vasicine acetate, 2-acetyl benzyl amine, vasicinolone present in the chloroform fraction having anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by using carrageenan and CFA-model induced paw oedema. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds was assessed by using the microdilution method.

Singh, Bharat
Sharma, Ram Avtar
Publication Title: 
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology

Allergy is an acquired hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system mediated by cross-linking of the allergen-specific IgE-bound high-affinity IgE receptors, leading to immediate mast cell degranulation. Rottlerin is an active molecule isolated from Mallotus philippinensis, a medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine System for anti-allergic and anti-helminthic treatments. The present study investigated potential anti-allergic effects of rottlerin in animal models of IgE-dependent anaphylaxis and the anti-allergic mechanisms of action of rottlerin in mast cells.

Chan, Tze Khee
Ng, David S. W.
Cheng, Chang
Guan, Shou Ping
Koh, Hock Meng
Wong, W. S. Fred
Publication Title: 
Cancer Letters

Autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis through the disposal and recycling of cellular components. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play major roles in cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Rottlerin (Rott) is an active molecule isolated from Mallotus philippinensis, a medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine for anti-allergic and anti-helminthic treatments, demonstrates anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which it induces autophagy in prostate CSCs have not been examined.

Kumar, Dhruv
Shankar, Sharmila
Srivastava, Rakesh K.
Publication Title: 

Diabetes is a major risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress appears to be an important mechanism. Previously, we showed that diabetic monocytes produce increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and alpha-tocopherol (AT) supplementation decreases this. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) of O(2)(-) release and inhibition by AT under hyperglycemic (HG) conditions in monocytes.

Venugopal, Senthil Kumar
Devaraj, Sridevi
Yang, Teddy
Jialal, Ishwarlal
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in the impairment of capillary blood flow in sepsis and in the reversal of this impairment by ascorbate. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled laboratory study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in research institute. SUBJECTS: Adult male wild type (WT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-/-, inducible NOS (iNOS)-/-, endothelial NOS (eNOS)-/-, and gp91phox-/- mice. INTERVENTIONS: Sepsis was induced by feces injection into peritoneum (FIP).

Tyml, Karel
Li, Fuyan
Wilson, John X.
Publication Title: 
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

Enzymatic oxidation of apocynin, which may mimic in vivo metabolism, affords a large number of oligomers (apocynin oxidation products, AOP) that inhibit vascular NADPH oxidase. In vitro studies of NADPH oxidase activity were performed to identify active inhibitors, resulting in a trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) that inhibited NADPH oxidase with an IC(50)=31nM. Apocynin itself possessed minimal inhibitory activity. NADPH oxidase is believed to be inhibited through prevention of the interaction between two NADPH oxidase subunits, p47(phox) and p22(phox).

Mora-Pale, Mauricio
Weïwer, Michel
Yu, Jingjing
Linhardt, Robert J.
Dordick, Jonathan S.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Rottlerin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Mallotus philipinensis. In the present study, we show that rottlerin decreased tumor size and stimulated apoptosis in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer with no effect on normal tissues in vivo. Rottlerin also induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cell lines by interacting with mitochondria and stimulating cytochrome c release. Immunoprecipitation results indicated that rottlerin disrupts complexes of prosurvival Bcl-xL with Bim and Puma.

Ohno, Izumi
Eibl, Guido
Odinokova, Irina
Edderkaoui, Mouad
Damoiseaux, Robert D.
Yazbec, Moussa
Abrol, Ravinder
Goddard, William A.
Yokosuka, Osamu
Pandol, Stephen J.
Gukovskaya, Anna S.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

NADPH oxidase has recently been identified as a promising new therapeutic target in ALS. Genetic deletion of NADPH oxidase (Nox2) in the transgenic SOD1(G93A) mutant mouse model of ALS was reported to increase survival remarkably by 97 days. Furthermore, apocynin, a widely used inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, was observed to dramatically extend the survival of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mice even longer to 113 days (Harraz et al. J Clin Invest 118: 474, 2008). Diapocynin, the covalent dimer of apocynin, has been reported to be a more potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase.

Trumbull, Kari A.
McAllister, Donna
Gandelman, Mandi M.
Fung, Whitney Y.
Lew, Thomas
Brennan, Lucy
Lopez, Nathan
Morré, Jeff
Kalyanaraman, Balaraman
Beckman, Joseph S.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)

The recognition of health benefits of phytomedicines and herbal supplements lead to an increased interest to understand the cellular and molecular basis of their biological activities. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone) is a constituent of the Himalayan medicinal herb Picrorhiza kurroa which is regarded as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, a superoxide-producing enzyme.

Simonyi, Agnes
Serfozo, Peter
Lehmidi, Tareq M.
Cui, Jiankun
Gu, Zezong
Lubahn, Dennis B.
Sun, Albert Y.
Sun, Grace Y.
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

Enzymatically derived oligophenols from apocynin can be effective inhibitors of human vascular NADPH oxidase (Nox). An isolated trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) has been shown to inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase with an IC(50) ~30 nM. In vitro studies demonstrated that IIIHyQ is capable of disrupting the interaction between p47(phox) and p22(phox), thereby blocking the activation of the Nox2 isoform. Herein, we report the role of key cysteine residues in p47(phox) as targets for the IIIHyQ.

Mora-Pale, Mauricio
Kwon, Seok Joon
Linhardt, Robert J.
Dordick, Jonathan S.


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