Sample Size

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a treatment option for asthma. METHOD: Seven databases were searched from their inception to October 2010. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and non-randomized clinical trials (NRCTs) were considered, if they investigated any type of yoga in patients with asthma. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Six RCTs and one NRCT met the inclusion criteria. Their methodological quality was mostly poor.

Posadzki, Paul
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other.

Kuster, Anootnara Talkul
Dalsbø, Therese K.
Luong Thanh, Bao Yen
Agarwal, Arnav
Durand-Moreau, Quentin V.
Kirkehei, Ingvild
Publication Title: 
Critical Care Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Because the results of a meta-analysis are used to formulate the highest level recommendation in clinical practice guidelines, clinicians should be mindful of problems inherent in this technique. Rather than reviewing meta-analysis in abstract, general terms, we believe readers can gain a more concrete understanding of the problems through a detailed examination of one meta-analysis.

Tobin, Martin J.
Jubran, Amal
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology

PURPOSE: An emerging body of evidence has shown the therapeutic effect of both mindful and non-mindful physical exercises on the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of mindful and non-mindful physical exercises as an intervention in managing depression or depressive symptoms based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Our review was conducted among five electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which tested the effects of mindful or/and non-mindful physical exercises on depression.

Tsang, Hector W. H.
Chan, Edward P.
Cheung, W. M.
Publication Title: 
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Fjorback LO, Arendt M, Ørnbøl E, Fink P, Walach H. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy - a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for MBSR and MBCT. METHOD: Systematic searches of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase were performed in October 2010. MBSR, MBCT and Mindfulness Meditation were key words. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) using the standard MBSR/MBCT programme with a minimum of 33 participants were included. RESULTS: The search produced 72 articles, of which 21 were included.

Fjorback, L. O.
Arendt, M.
Ornbøl, E.
Fink, P.
Walach, H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review placebo-controlled randomized trials of homeopathy for psychiatric conditions. DATA SOURCES: Eligible studies were identified using the following databases from database inception to April 2010: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Hom-Inform, Cochrane CENTRAL, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine grantee publications database, and

Davidson, Jonathan R. T.
Crawford, Cindy
Ives, John A.
Jonas, Wayne B.
Publication Title: 

The objectives of the study were (1) to carry out a systematic review to assess the analgesic efficacy and the adverse effects of acupuncture compared with placebo for back and neck pain and (2) to develop a new tool, the Oxford Pain Validity Scale (OPVS), to measure validity of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and to enable ranking of trial findings according to validity within qualitative reviews. Published RCTs (of acupuncture at both traditional and non-traditional points) were identified from systematic searching of bibliographic databases (e.g.

Smith, L. A.
Oldman, A. D.
McQuay, H. J.
Moore, R. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

We aimed to investigate: (1) whether patient and intervention characteristics, design-independent quality aspects, and response rates differ between randomized and non-randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic headache; (2) whether non-randomized studies provide useful additional information (regarding long-term effects, prognostic factors, adverse effects, and generalizability); (3) reasons for potential differences in response rates.

Linde, Klaus
Scholz, Michael
Melchart, Dieter
Willich, Stefan N.
Publication Title: 

BACKGROUND: Low back pain affects a large proportion of the population. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was introduced more than 30 years ago as an alternative therapy to pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain. However, despite its widespread use, the efficacy of TENS is still controversial. PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of TENS in the treatment of chronic low back pain. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to June 1, 2000.

Brosseau, Lucie
Milne, Sarah
Robinson, Vivian
Marchand, Serge
Shea, Beverley
Wells, George
Tugwell, Peter
Publication Title: 

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acupuncture may be a promising treatment for poststroke paralysis. We conducted a meta-analysis, assessing the efficacy of acupuncture with and without stroke rehabilitation. METHODS: We identified randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no acupuncture within 6 months of stroke by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Chinese medical literature databases. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, patient characteristics, and impairment and disability outcomes.

Sze, Frank Kai-hoi
Wong, Eric
Or, Kevin K. H.
Lau, Joseph
Woo, Jean


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